Title: Investigation of Optimum Hybrid Treatment Techniques of Industrial Wastewaters of Organized Industries in Nilüfer River Basin
Presenter: Esat Arıtürk
The Nilüfer River has its' spring within the borders of Bursa and flows into the Marmara Sea, while being heavily polluted by industrial wastewaters. As a result of the high exposure of the river to the wastewater discharges with different characteristics with different industries such as paint, leather, textile, automotive, food etc., the physical, chemical and biological balance of Marmara Sea is disrupted. Recently, the presence of a group of contaminants, identified as specific and priority polluters have been recognized as significant water polluters that have adverse effects on both human and wildlife endocrine systems. Natural attenuation and conventional treatment processes are not capable of removing these micropolluters which are reported to bioaccummulate in macro invertebrates, other organisms in the aquatic environment and humans beings. This research focused on the best treatment techniques for industrial wastewater from different industries (leather, textiles, olive oil, paint, metal, chemicals and oil etc.). Furhertmore, these best treatment techniques is evaluated according to their capital and operational cost. In this study, pollutants are specified with water analysis from the selected sampling points in Nilüfer River. Hence, it is also aimed to foresee which polluter is caused by which industry. In this context, these will guide the changes that the industry will make in their own processes in the future.
Title: Removal of Chloridazon Herbicide From Wastewaters Using FE/H2O2, UV/H202 and UV/FE/H2O2
Presenter: H.Bike İÇEN
Production of sugar beets have shown 29% increment between 1988-2016 according to Turkish Statistical Institute. Accordingly, an increase in the use of pesticides has also been observed. Lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, endosulfan, malathion, pyrimiphos-methyl and chloridazon are the commonly used pesticides for the control of beet crops around the world. Being one of them, chloridazon, also named as Pyrazon and classified as organochlorine pesticides, is the most widely used pesticide for sugar beets in Kastamonu which is the city contributing largely to Turkey’s Sugar Beets production. Chloridazon (5 -amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinon) is a pesticide found in powder form and it has a high solubility in water (approximately 400 mg/L). Studies showed that this herbicide ends up in surface and groundwater because of its high mobility. Due to toxic properties of chloridazon, it is obvious that if not removed from water sources it will cause serious problems on human health and ecological cycle. Recent studies showed that biological methods, adsorption and photo degradation are the methods used for the removal of chloridazon from wastewaters. However, these methods have some disadvantages with regard to the cost of treatment as well as the toxic characteristics of the chloridazon. On the other hand, to our knowledge, there is a limited numbers of studies regarding the removal of chloridazon using advanced oxidation processes (AOP’s) based on hydroxyl radical production. Therefore,in this study,removal of chloridazon using Fe/H2O2 (Fenton), UV/ H2O2 and UV/Fe/H2O2 (Photo Fenton) will be investigated.Chloridazon analysis will be conducted using HPLC. For the AOP’s to be studied, parametric analysis will be performed in order to determine the effects of parameters such as H2O2, Fe+2, and chloridazon concentration, UV light intensity and pH Furthermore, possible by-products of chloridazon degradation will be sought.
Title: Designing a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Verification System for Turkey
Presenter: E. Sena Uzunpınar
Human influence on climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) led the world’s nations to take action. With the establishment of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and on the road to Paris Agreement, parties of the Convention agreed to report their GHG emissions data annually which are prepared based on a methodology developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Accordingly, Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) of member countries are prepared. However, field studies revealed that actual measurements and modeling studies did not comply with inventories. For some of the GHG, reductions were not achieved as much as it was planned, whereas for others emissions were not as much as it was predicted. This brought forward the importance of verification of inventories. In this study, a GHG verification system for Turkey, a party to the Convention, will be designed by combining emissions data from inventories submitted by Turkey, and from databases such as ODIAC and EDGAR, together with the use of an atmospheric dispersion model e.g. NAME. Inversion modelling framework will be followed and “pseudo-data” will be generated by the model to determine locations for setting up monitoring stations. The results are expected to serve as a guideline for Turkey to plan establishment of such a network in order to increase the reliability of its inventory and INDC. This study will also help Turkey to enhance its contribution to climate change mitigation efforts while concurrently supporting the global action.
Title: Environmental Performance Evaluation in a Refrigerator Plant
Presenter: Cansu Dönmezoğlu
Numerous organizations around the globe search for methods to represent, understand and enhance environmental performance that belongs to them. It is possible to attain those objectives by actively managing the components and factors of their activities, goods and services, which may have truly significant impacts on the environment. In order to detect whether environmental performance of an organization fulfills the standards defined by the administration of the organization or not, a tool is necessary to provide required statement with dependable and confirmable information on a continuous basis. Environmental performance evaluation (EPE) is an internal process and management tool designed for this purpose. By utilizing a collection of environmental performance indicators (EPIs), EPE is performed. EPIs can assist detecting the most important environmental impacts, elucidating and communicating environmental aims of the companies. EPE methods can be applied in plants on purpose of observing environmental impacts of manufacturing plants, with the objective of improving the energy and resource usage efficiency, along with the purpose of inspecting compliance with the regulation. In this study, using the monitored EPIs of a refrigerator plant, EPE application is going to be performed. In the next stage of the study, improvements are going to be planned in the process, using the best available techniques reference documents (BREFs), depending on the outcomes of the EPE application. After this stage, planned improvements are going to be evaluated with cost and benefit analysis.
Title: Using Capacitive Deionization Technology for Ion Removal from Water
Presenter: Selin Özkul
Capacitive deionization (CDI) process is a new water purification technology that is mainly developed to remove heavy metal ions and ions that cause salinity from the water by the help of supercapacitor electrodes with high surface area. As compared to today
's conventional ion removal technologies, CDI technology has become more prominent in recent years due to its lower energy requirement, low cost and environmental friendliness. In the scope of this study, supercapacitor electrodes with different nanomaterials will be fabricated to be used for different ion removals in lab-scale CDI unit. The preliminary results with Na ions indicated the significance of operational parameters such as initial ion/metal concentration, water flowrate and applied voltage. Future work will include the use of CDI technology for lead removal, which is a highly toxic and accumulative heavy metal that widely found in surface water originated from various industries and mining sites and classified as priority pollutant by EU because of its serious risks to the environment. Removal efficiencies of supercapacitor electrodes will be explored under various operational conditions.
Title: Numerical Modeling of Guzelyurt Aquifer, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Presenter: Cansu Demir
Among the existing and limited amount of water resources, Guzelyurt Aquifer is the most important, at the same time the largest drinking, municipal and irrigation water resource in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). However, the aquifer has exceeded its safe yield capacity with a significant reduction in extractable groundwater due to excessive and uncontrolled pumping over the years and the water quality has been seriously degraded due to seawater intrusion near the coastal areas. With “TRNC Water Supply Project” implemented recently, about 75 million m3 of water is being supplied via pipeline under Mediterranean Sea from Turkish Republic to solve the water shortage problem in TRNC. With the water supplied, the deteriorated water budget of the aquifer can be reestablished in the mid- and long-term. Within this framework, the objective of the proposed research is to create 3-D detailed conceptual and numerical models of Guzelyurt Aquifer using system modeling approach integrated with today’s modern technologies of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and numerical simulation techniques. Furthermore, the 3-D numerical model developed and calibrated using the available field data based on the conceptual model is aimed to be used to simulate various water management scenarios regarding artificial recharge applications, defined water pumping scenarios, groundwater level variations related to displacement of pumping areas and improvements in water budget; and change in areal extent of seawater intrusion. For the purpose of model development, geologic, hydrologic and hydrogeological data available in the archives and the data bases of the Geology and Mining Department (G&MD) of TRNC will be used, as well as the data, such as the amount of water pumped from wells, water level elevations and water quality (EC, Cl, pH, etc.) parameters, collected by G&MD from selected bore holes and monitoring wells through field monitoring studies. The model development studies are based on the software called ArcGIS 10.0 and Groundwater Modeling System (GMS 10.2). The both are used to create the conceptual model. The numerical simulation models are carried out with the latter software.
Title: Turkey's Transboundary Waters and Hydrodiplomacy
Presenter: Prof. Dr. Oktay F. TANRISEVER (Department of International Relations, METU)
This paper seeks to explore Turkey's Hydrodiplomacy regarding its transboundary Waters from a comparative perspective The paper starts with a discussion of Turkey's approach to hydrodiplomacy from a historical perspective. This will be followed by a discussion of Turkey's hydrodiplomacy towards the Middle Eastern states of Iraq and Syria by focusing on the transboundary river basins of Europhrates and Tigris as well as Orontes. Next, it explores Turkey's hydrodiplomacy towards the Balkan countries of Bulgaria and Greece by focusing on Maritsa transboundary river basin The paper also analyzes the characteristics of Turkey's hydrodiplomacy towards the Caucasian countries of Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan by focusing on the Kura-Araks transboundary river basin. The paper concludes with a comparative analysis of the major opportunuties and risks facing Turkey's existing hydrodiplomacy towards the Middle East, the Balkans and the Caucasus.
Title: A Case Study For Assessing Discharge Standarts on Tersakan Creek Subbasin of Yeşilirmak Basin via Aquatool Software
Presenter: Yiğit Özşen
Estuary named as Tersakan Creek of Yeşilırmak basin selected as one of most important receiving body of polluting flows, regarding point sources and diffused source flows located in sub basin rather than conventional pollutants, for prior specific micropollutants based on environmental quality standards (EQS) discharge standards will be specified via software. Aquatool software model and necessary models will be used in Specifications of EQS values. Aquatool is a supportive decision mechanism for planning and management of river and basin systems. The most general approach between those modules is named as SİMGES enables; management of river basin and complex water resources, consumption or storage aimed nature or artificial water resources could be entered to system as an object. Model used on monthly period of time and shares information of flows in specified range of scales. River and aquifer relation could be simulated with single and multicellular models. Model, could calculate river fed from surface flows groundwater fed from river bed (seepage), also evaporation and infiltration data from reservoirs. Simulation of that surface flows via algorithmic optimization. This model shares relation of drought and maximum volume seasons charts and suggest hydroelectric potential. It can solve nonlinear processes such as; infiltration, evaporation and surface and seepage flows. Other module going to be used is named as GESCAL, for water quality modeling based on basin. It contains all process may cause alterations to water quality. Those calculations made upon objects entered in SIMGES module. For various scenarios, it presents different solution alternatives in scope of basin management and evaluate possible problems regarding water quality.
Title: A Sustainable Local Development Model: “Improvement of The Solar Powered Devices And in Yozgat Şahmuratlı Village”
Presenter: Dr. Elif Asuman Korkusuz-Ülgen (Deputy General Manager Optimet Engineering Environmental Technologies Ltd. Co.; Ankara)
The concept of using solar power and solar-powered designs (solar cookers, solar dryers and solar box ovens) was introduced to the Şahmuratlı villagers in the Yozgat District during a project entitled “The Demonstration and Promotion of Solar Energy Uses in Sahmuratlı Village” (TUR-05-14) financed mainly by the United Nations Global Environment Facility's Small Grants Programme (UNDP-GEF) and implemented by the Kerkenes project office and Şahmuratlı Association between 2006-2007
The villagers participated to both the trainings and design work during the course of the project and they gained valuable experience in this field. However the use of these devices was discontinued because villagers encountered a number of difficulties while using the solar-powered designs (e.g. the need to replace frequently the reflective adhesive paper on the cookers, the heaviness of the cast iron cooker and the low efficiency of the solar drier). To overcome those problems, a new project called “Improvement of the Solar Powered Devices and Branding Infrastructure in Kerkenes, Sorgun”, was proposed by the Kerkenes project office and Şahmuratlı Association and supported by the UNDP-GEF between 2008-2010.
The presentation will summarize the experience gained in the above mentioned projects.
Title: Assessing The Potential of an Integrated Damo-Anammox-Microalgae System
Presenter: Rayaan Harb
Traditional biological wastewater treatment processes have high energy demand that results in little or no recovery of resources and often these processes require external chemical inputs. However, wastewater containing both organic carbon and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus has the potential for energy recovery if the appropriate processes were implemented. This has led to a transformation of our understanding of the required energy inputs and the potential energy and resource outputs from the process of wastewater treatment that might lead to an energy producing treatment practice. Anaerobic processes are emphasized for energy recovery since they require a very low energy input compared to the aerobic processes. Lately, energy generation from nitrogen removal has become a trending research and development topic which has led to increased studies on topics such as the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process, the denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing (DAMO) process and the cultivation of Microalgae. Moreover, there are studies investigating the cultivation of Microalgae along with the Anammox process for joint energy production and nutrient removal. While others examine using a DAMO-Anammox integrated system to efficiently remove the nitrogen and convert the methane to carbon dioxide. On the other hand, merging the three processes to further increase the potential of nutrient removal and energy harvesting clearly warrants exploration. This thesis is aimed at studying the potential of an integrated DAMO-Anammox-Microalgae system, to remove the contaminants and store the produced carbon dioxide via Microalgae cultivation so energy can be recovered through the anaerobic digestion of the cultivated Microalgae.
Title: Determination of Groundwater Threshold Values: A Methodological Proposal Applied to Gediz Basin
Presenter: Onur Fatih Bulut
Regulation on Protection of Groundwater from Contamination and Damage of Turkey requires the establishment of groundwater thresholds in groundwater bodies. According to this regulation, water status, as good or not, is to be determined based on the chemical status. Indeed, in a EU Project entitled “Background Criteria for the Identification of Groundwater Thresholds-BRIDGE”, in an attempt to the implementation of Water Frame Directive, a methodological framework has been developed to determine threshold values (TV) for pollutants which cause the groundwater body to be characterized as ‘at risk’. In this respect, Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs of Turkey (MFWA) is in charge to determine the river basin based TV values for the priority and specific pollutants in Turkey. To this end, a methodology that would be followed in Turkey needs to be developed. A methodology developed by the BRIDGE has some flexibility as it allows countries to make some choices depending on the groundwater body characteristics and available monitoring data. In this study, taking the BRIDGE methodology as a basis, TVs will be determined for a pilot-basin, namely, Gediz Basin of Turkey. Basically, TV will be determined by comparing the natural background level (NBL) of a quality parameter in a basin with the appropriate reference value (REF). NBL is the value that represents a naturally occurring level or a level that could occur without human-caused changes in a river basin. This value will be determined through the statistical analysis of field measurements belonging to the target contaminant or quality parameter as suggested by BRIDGE. Whereas REF is the criterion value which is set by governmental authorities to regulate the water usage, depending on the intended use of water bodies. While determining TVs, groundwater monitoring data produced by the MFWA through three different monitoring campaigns were used. Statistical analysis was performed using “MATLAB” and “Excel”.
Title: A comprehensive approach to sustainable water management: Water Footprint Assessment and its applications
Presenter: Dr. Ertug Ercin
Human impacts on freshwater systems are ultimately linked to our lifestyle choices and structure of our economy. Population growth, accelerating demand on food and energy increase the impacts we exert on our freshwater resources and these will exacerbate under extreme weather conditions and climate change, where traditional engineering solutions will not suffice. Water Footprint Assessment brings a new perspective to water resources management to address these issues: risk management instead of crisis, not only sustainable production but also sustainable consumption, resource efficiency while respecting geographical limits, multi-stakeholder water-shed management and fair and smart allocation of water resources. In this talk, Dr. Ercin will talk about what water footprint assessment brings new to sustainable water management and how it is applied from different perspectives: consumers, companies, water managers, policy maker and researchers.
Dr. Ertug Ercin
A water engineer and scientist by training, Dr. Ercin has 15 years of international experience in project management, research, policy advice, consultancy and capacity building in water engineering, management and sustainability. As a pioneer in application of Water Footprint Assessment, he has worked with multinationals such as Heineken, Unilever, Coca-Cola and intra-governmental agencies like IFC, the World Bank, UN, EU Commission towards sustainable and efficient water use. He is the author of more than 50 publications and participated in several meetings, conferences, and workshops as a key-note speaker. Since 2013 Dr. Ercin has been working as a project manager at “Water Footprint Network” and leading projects related to sustainable water use and management in agriculture, industry and river basins. Currently, he leads a scientific team who are exploring the impacts of extreme weather events and climate change on the European economy. He continues lecturing at Dutch Universities about water policy and management.
Ph.D. University of Twente (NL), Water Resources Engineering (2012
M.S. METU, Water Resources Management and Hydraulics (2006)
B.S. METU, Civil Engineering (2002)
Title: Innovation Driven Entrepreneurship
Presenter: S. Nilay BASAN (Assistant Expert, Directorate of Enterpreneurship, ODTÜ Teknokent)
Title: Modeling Studies in Water Resources Management in Turkey
Presenter: Dr. Ayfer Özdemir (Section Manager of Modeling Section, General Directorate of Water Management, Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs)
The water framework directive (WFD), created by the European Union, indicates new approaches on water management and protection of aquatic environment since uncontrolled agricultural, industrial activities and settlements on river basins threaten water quality and quantity. The directive points out that integrated planning and management of water resources at the basin scale is important for sustainable water management. Understanding temporal and spatial distribution of water on river basins, which includes recharge and contaminant loadings, becomes mandatory for the proper management and protection of valuable water resource. Thus, the development and the application of mathematical simulation models, which are representations of all the important hydrological processes at the suitable scale, may play a major role in order to anticipate short and long-term effects on the aquatic system for a successful river basin management plan. The General Directorate of Water Management have managed the water resources based on integrated manner. The Institute have used hydrological, hydrodynamic, water quality and ecological models as tools while generating water management policy.
Title: Toward Integration of Life Cycle Assessment into Leed Ratıng System of Green Buıldıngs- Assessment of Water and Energy Efficiency
Presenter: Merve Aygenç
In this study Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool will be used for analyzing the environmental effects of the green buildings associated with the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) system of Green Building Rating Systems (GBRS). The ultimate goal here is to contribute to the integration of LCA into the LEED rating system. “Water efficiency” and “Energy and atmosphere” criteria of the LEED BD+C: New Construction v3 – LEED 2009 will be considered. For this purpose, LCA study will be performed to a selected green building associated with LEED by taking a conventional building case as a reference. In a way, the environmental impact reduction is expected to be achieved, as well as economical gains, with the integration of LCA to LEED system. Functional unit will be set as “meter square of the building”. System boundary will be selected as cradle to grave. Impact categories of “global warming potential”, “depletion of the ozone layer”, “acidification of land and water sources”, “eutrophication”, “photochemical ozone creation potential” and “depletion of nonrenewable energy resources” will be considered. LCA will be conducted using SimaPro and OneClick LCA softwares. While doing this research, the standards will be set based on ISO 14040:2006 in order to reach a sustainable development. Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) will also be executed to evaluate the study in terms of economic aspects.
Title: Past and Future Challenges of Contaminated Site Remediation
Presenter: Prof. Dr. Ivan Holoubek
Two research centres from the Brno, Czech Republic work in the field of different environmental problems will be introduced. Presentation will be mainly focused on the expert opinion on the issue of the lack of a solution of the problems connected with hazardous chemical substances and mixtures, materials and wastes released into the natural environment in past and present. Problems and experiences from more the last 30 years of projects and activities concerninig to the contaminated sites and general problems of chemical pollution in the Czech Republic will be discussed.
Title: Renewable Energy
Presenter: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Elçin Kentel
Energy plays a critical role in economic growth and social development. Replenishment of conventional energy resources are slow compared to our consumption rates and utilization of these resources are associated with a number of health and environmental problems. Thus, increasing the contributions of renewable energy in the energy budgets of countries became critical. Turkey is a developing country and its energy consumption increased continuously in the last four decades. Main energy sources used in Turkey are hard coal, petroleum and natural gas and they are mostly imported. Thus, to maintain energy security, it is very important for Turkey to start utilizing domestic renewable energy resources. Hydropower is one of the main domestic resources of the country and approximately 35% of the economically viable potential is utilized. Currently, the government supports private investors to develop this unused potential, however, necessary water resources management strategies are missing to maintain sustainable development. Due to associated social and environmental consequences there are many lawsuits and suspension of executions related with hydropower projects in Turkey. Unless these issues are resolved Turkey can not effectively benefit from its renewable and domestic resources.
Presenter: Esra Şıltu
Rapid industrial development and unplanned urbanization put immense pressure on clean freshwater resources. In order to cope with this problem, an integrated approach was put forth by European Union (EU) in 2000 via the Water Framework Directive, WFD (2000/60/EC). WFD is based on the protection and enhancement of ecological integrity of water resources and aims achieving good water status around Europe. Chemical, physicochemical, biological and hydro-morphological characteristics of water resources are evaluated as a whole in the Directive and water status is determined accordingly. In this context, “priority substances” and “specific pollutants” were introduced as new concepts by the Directive to control the pollution from hazardous substances. Currently, 45 priority substances and their environmental quality standards (EQS) are listed in the Directive 2013/39/EU and they are evaluated under chemical status. Moreover, specific pollutants and their EQSs are identified by member states and they are evaluated under ecological status. With the aim of achieving good water status, member states are obliged to take necessary measures to control discharges of priority substances and specific pollutants. For this purpose, implementation of Best Available Techniques and Best Environmental Practices were encouraged and EQS based discharge standards were derived in some of the member states. Turkey, as a candidate country for EU membership, also has to comply with the requirements of WFD. In this scope, specific pollutants, priority substances and their EQSs were integrated into the By-law on Surface Water Quality in 2016. This study aims to develop an approach to help ongoing studies on the derivation of EQS based discharge standards. Implementation of EQS is expected to contribute significantly to the integrated protection of water resources.
Title: Development of a membrane based hybrid process train for sericin recovery from silk degumming wastewaters
Presenter: Bora Kiraz
Silk fibre, secreted by bombyx mori as used in this study, consists of two proteins: fibroin and sericin. Fibroin is the basic material of the commercial silk fibre and fabric, whereas sericin is the gumming protein which bonds fibroin together. In silk processing industry, sericin protein is discarded as a waste. However, it is a valuable resource for many industries such as cosmetics and pharmaceutical. In Turkey, there is enough potential to consider this effluent for resource recovery. Membrane technology was adopted for this purpose and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 2 kDa and 10 kDa were tested. Different pre-treatment methods such as low temperature crystallization, coagulation plus flocculation and centrifugation were applied prior to UF. As pre-treatment, the most suitable method was found as coagulation plus flocculation after pH adjustment to 3.5. Soap was completely separated from sericin in the pre-treatment stage as a result of settling of free fatty acids. In UF, sericin recovery as high as 90% was achieved, however severe fouling (80%) of the membranes was observed. However, clean water fluxes were almost completely restored by chemical cleaning. The results are very promising for resource recovery in silk industry.
Title: Removal of pesticide from water with Fenton-like process: Effectiveness of a new heterogeneous catalyst
Presenter: Mohsin Ali
Extensive utilization of pesticides in the form of herbicides, fungicides, insecticides result in surface water pollution through runoff from agricultural lands and urban discharges. Besides, their very low concentrations (μg/L or ng/L) in surface water bodies and in domestic wastewaters, removal of these pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) are recommended due to being highly persistent, toxic, bio-accumulative and hence dangerous for aquatic ecosystems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are recognized as an efficient technique for the mineralization of these non-biodegradable pollutants. Fenton-like process is one of the AOPs, in which Fe+3 is used as a catalyst and H2O2 as an oxidant under limited pH range. Higher sludge is produced in AOPs, because of the difficulties in catalyst recycling. So, in recent years, efforts have been exerted towards the preparation of heterogeneous catalysts which could work at wider range of pH with a minimum sludge production and recycled catalysts. Therefore, the purpose of the proposed study is to test a new catalyst with indigenous zeolite mineral and compared with other heterogeneous catalyst available in market in terms of their effectiveness toward the removal of pesticides from wastewater via the Fenton like process.
Title: SIX DEGREES COULD CHANGE THE WORLD
As the volume of greenhouse gases increases yearly, scientists are warning that the global average temperature could increase by as much as 6ºC over the next century, which would cause our world to change radically. This documentary of 1 hr and 36 minutes joins British author Mark Lynas and climate experts as they take a look at what effect each rise of 1ºC could have on the world. Even if greenhouse emissions stopped overnight, the concentrations already in the atmosphere would still mean a global rise of between 0.5 and 1ºC. But what if the global temperature increased by another degree? According to Mark Lynas, author of Six Degrees, the changes would no longer be gradual. Greenland’s glaciers and some of the lower lying islands would start to disappear. At 3ºC higher the Arctic would be ice-free all summer, the Amazon rainforest would begin to dry out and extreme weather patterns would become the norm. An increase of 4ºC would see the oceans rise drastically. Then comes the twilight zone of climate change, if the global temperature rises again by another degree. Part of once temperate regions could become uninhabitable, while humans fight each other for the world’s remaining resources. The sixth degree is what is called the doomsday scenario as oceans become marine wastelands, deserts expand and catastrophic events become more common.
Title: FORECASTING INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION CO2 EMISSIONS OF TURKEY
Presenter: Deniz KAYMAK
Along with the emerging economy, aviation has become one of the fastest growing sectors and consequently has turned into one of the major growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, global aviation stands for about 2% of all human-induced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and responsible for 12% of CO2 emissions from all forms of transportation. Civil aviation activities in Turkey have undergone rapid development since 2000s and have resulted in significant increase in fuel consumption and associated emissions. Since the accelerated growth of the civil aviation sector is expected to continue globally, in this study current CO2 emissions associated with international civil aviation activities will be determined for Turkey and future CO2 emissions from this sector will be forecasted based on different scenarios including the fuel efficiency improvement with technological achievements, adaptation of alternative fuels, and the increase in the air traffic demand based on economic improvement. Crucial factors have been used in literature to convert the air traffic demand data into fuel demand data. In this study the growth of the air traffic will be determined based on economic improvement factor, gross domestic product and then with the use of fuel efficiency term air traffic data will be converted into the fuel demand. The results of this study will provide foresight for decision and policy makers who endeavor to include the aviation sector into climate change policies; moreover the results will be the basis of any mechanism for the control of the emissions in Turkey.
Title: SUSTAINABLE REMEDIATION OF AQUATIC SEDIMENTS CONTAMINATED WITH POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDEs) AND HEXABROMOCYCLODODECANE (HBCDD)
Presenter: Hale DEMİRTEPE
Industrial and anthropogenic activities have brought about excessive amounts of industrial and domestic wastes which are eventually discharged into the environment. Especially, the chemicals that are produced due to human and industrial needs have lead to the contamination of natural resources. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widely used to protect against fire in many commercial goods throughout the world. When they are discharged into water bodies, they accumulate in organic media, especially in biota and aquatic sediments. Since BFRs have potential health effects; such as endocrine disruption, and pose risk to the environment due to their persistence, their use is regulated by the Stockholm Convention. Fate of BFRs in aquatic sediments is a significant issue and is of research interest in the last decade. The aim of this study is to investigate the fate of two mostly used BFRs, namely PBDEs and HBCDD, in the environment under various conditions, thereby to assess sustainable remediation strategies for contaminated sediments. Within the scope of the study, for PBDEs and HBCDD: i) analytical methods were developed for their measurement in solid media (dewatered sludge and sediments), ii) biotic degradation were investigated in small scale sediment microcosms, iii) abiotic degradation is currently being investigated via catalyzed hydrogen peroxide propagation reactions, iv) biodegradation in large scale sediment mesocosms will be studied, and finally v) remediation options will be evaluated from the perspective of sustainable remediation.
Title: WASTEWATER SLUDGE IN BIOELECTRICITY GENERATION USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS
Presenter: Seçil ÖMEROĞLU
Increasing population and industrialization have created an extreme pressure on natural energy resources such as petroleum and coal, resulting in a bottleneck called as global energy crisis. Today, in addition to the exploitation of the resources, current energy practices also pollute the environment and it becomes mandatory to investigate low carbon emission, renewable energy technologies. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are one of these technologies that convert the chemical energy present in the bonds of organic matter into electrical energy via catalytic reactions of microorganisms. Nowadays, MFCs are planned to be integrated into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) since WWTPs are energy intensive facilities. In fact, wastewater itself has an energy content 9 times higher than required for its treatment and almost 60% of this energy is concentrated in sludge. That’s why, wastewater and wastewater sludges are perfect candidates to be used as fuel in MFCs. Unfortunately, even if MFCs seem to be promising technologies, full scale application still does not exist due to economic and technical limitations. To overcome these challenges, the microbial kinetics and operational conditions of a MFC must be studied in details. This study aims to compare different types wastewater sludges using a dual chamber MFC to see how the power output is affected by the organic and inhibitory constituents in sludge. But prior to this, the materials and operational conditions affecting MFC performance will be investigated and optimized.
Title: ASSESSMENT OF REDUCING INDUSTRIAL MICRO-POLLUTANTS EMISSION LEVELS TO ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARDS USING BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES (BAT) IN GEDIZ BASIN
Presenter: Tolga Pilevneli
According to European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD), a water body that is in “good status” in terms of both ecological and chemical conditions requires meeting the Environmental Quality Standards (EQS). The Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs (MFWA) is developing River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) to achieve this goal and the management of micro-pollutants which might have detrimental impacts on the environment and organisms is one of the targets of this management project. Water quality data compiled by the MFWA in Gediz Basin will be used to assess micro-pollutants found in industrial wastewaters. The purpose of this study is to develop strategies for the control of micropollutant emission from the major industrial source in Gediz River Basin. To this end, major industrial sources will be identified and their current production and treatment practices will be investigated. Current practices in these facilities will be compared to Best Available Techniques (BAT) and new production and treatment developments will be suggested to eliminate or decrease micro-pollutant loads into water bodies in Gediz Basin.
Title: Making Effective Presentations in Academic Contexts
Presenter: Deniz Saydam & Dr. Esin Korkut Savul (AWR Coordinators)
The presentation is designed with the aim of giving MA and PHD students the necessary input concerning the preparation of academic presentations, the organization of a multitude of ideas in a coherent way to render them more eligible for academic contexts, the techniques for being effective speakers, the parts of a presentation and the components each part should include. In short, the presentation not only deals with the content and organization of a presentation but also gives certain tips for effective delivery.
Title: SEMINAR ON ACADEMIC WRITING
Presenter: Deniz Saydam & Dr. Esin Korkut Savul (AWR Coordinators)
The seminar caters for the improvement of academic writing among the audience and addresses Master and PhD students. The general aim is to inform the audience about the basic principles of academic writing in English and about what to include (or perhaps exclude) in an article based on the conventions of academic writing. The seminar further aims to help researchers develop as writers within the academic community by helping them gain an insight into the basic structure of academic writing and into the effective use of sources and citation methods. The seminar is delivered in a combination of lecture and hands-on format. It gives participants guided practice in becoming more skillful writers bearing in mind the fact that learning to write takes time and commitment. In this respect, the seminar also introduces the ways in which METU Academic Writing Center functions and collaborates with post-graduate students who try to develop writing habits as well as those who try to overcome difficulties they encounter while writing within the academic context.
Title:LABORATUVAR GÜVENLİĞİ VE ÇALIŞMA KURALLARI
Presenter: Melek ÖZDEMİR
ODTÜ Çevre Mühendisliği Bölümü "Laboratuvar Güvenliği ve Çalışma Kuralları" konulu sunum laboratuvar genel işleyiş kurallarını, laboratuvarda çalışılırken kişisel olarak alınması gereken önlemleri, kimyasal maddeler, cam malzemeler ve cihazlar ile çalışırken dikkat edilmesi gereken hususları ve atıkların toplanmasında izlenecek prosedür hakkında genel bilgileri kapsamaktadır.
Title: RANKING OF PESTICIDES ACCORDING TO LEACHING POTENTIALS TO GROUNDWATER FOR THE SELECTED RIVER BASINS IN TURKEY – INDEX-BASED APPROACH
Presenter: A. Ece AKAY
In this study, it is aimed to perform pesticide groundwater leaching potential assessment with prioritizing the pesticides for the selected river basins of Turkey, namely Akarcay, Büyük Menderes, Meric-Ergene, Gediz, Kızılırmak, Kücük Menderes, Konya Kapalı, Sakarya and Susurluk. The results of this study would help Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs (MoFWA) to identify the pesticides to be included during the groundwater monitoring studies. Pesticides analyzed during this study were determined within the projects of TMMK, BIKOP and KIYITEMA carried out for surface waters by MoFWA according to their usage based on river basins. After analyzing the approaches applied by European Union (EU), USA and international organizations intended for the identification of the pesticides having potential to leach to groundwaters, it was decided that index-based approaches which generally ground on pollutant and soil properties are most suitable for conditions of Turkey meaning data availability. After analyzing the approaches applied by European Union (EU), USA and international organizations intended for the identification of the pesticides having potential to leach to groundwaters, it was decided that index-based approaches which generally ground on pollutant and soil properties are most suitable for conditions of Turkey meaning data availability. The prioritization study was performed for 157 pesticides. For all of these pesticides, eighteen different indices were calculated. It was realized that some of these indices give different results that makes ranking of pesticides difficult. For this reason, a new index named as
YASGEP-P was developed by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with combining the evaluated indices. With taking YASGEP-P as basis, 6 priority groups were obtained. First two groups among the 6 groups resulted from prioritization of pesticides were decided to be included in groundwater monitoring studies as a priority.
Title: COST OF REDUCING MICRO-POLLUTANT LOAD FROM URBAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN TURKEY
Presenter: Alper ATEŞ
The main objective of this study is to estimate installation and operation cost of reducing the micropollutant load that would be achieved through upgrading of urban wastewater treatment plants in Turkey. To this end, firstly, water quality monitoring data from a number of projects that are carried out by the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs will be compiled and the micropollutants that commonly exist in the effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants and also their typical concentrations will be determined. Then, considering the environmental quality standards that will be implemented in the near future, the additional treatment needed and the applicable alternative techniques to this end will be identified. Finally, the unit installation and operation costs of the alternative techniques will be estimated and used for the prediction of the total cost of meeting the relevant environmental quality standards to be implemented in Turkey.
ANTIMONY REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER VIA ADSORPTION: A CASE STUDY FOR YEŞILIRMAK RIVER BASIN
Antimony and its compounds are considered as “priority pollutants” by European Union and US Environmental Protection Agency since the exposure to antimony compounds can cause serious threat to human health. Antimony occurs in the environment as a consequence of natural processes and human activities which include mining, smelting and the combustion of fossil fuels. Majority of the antimony enters the environment during the mining and processing of its ores and in the production of antimony metal, alloys, antimony oxide, and combinations of antimony with other substances. Turkey is among the world's top antimony producing countries. For antimony, UE and USA limits are 5 µg/L and 6 µg/L, respectively. Therefore, determination of antimony concentrations and treatment of these substances have great importance especially where mining areas are located. Since antimony concentration are found high levels in antimony mine areas. Different technologies have been used to remove antimony from wastewater. Coagulation/flocculation, ion exchange and adsorption are among the most
common treatment methods for antimony. In this study samples will be collected from numerous stations located on Yeşilırmak River, especially before and after the antimony mining area in Turhal district of Tokat. Measurement of the samples’ concentration will be performed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Measured concentrations will be compared with data generated in other mining sites around the world. And effect of adsorption on removal of antimony and proper pH range for the most effective adsorption will be investigated in the scope of the study.
Title: IDENTIFICATION AND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN URBAN AREA OF ANKARA
Presenter: Tayebeh Goli
In this study, Chemistry and Composition of Atmospheric fine aerosol Particles in Ankara will be identified and generated data set will be used to determine sources of fine particles using receptor modeling. For this purpose, 24-hr aerosol samples will be collected on nuclepore filters using a 'Stack Filter Unit'. Sampling will continue for 15 months. Samples will be collected at twos stations. One of the stations will be located at Ankara university campus which is an urban location and the second station will be located at METU campus, which can be considered as a suburban location. Collected filters will be analyzed for 40 - 50 major, minor and trace elements, with atomic numbers ranging between 3 for Li and 92 for U. Measured concentrations elements will be compared with corresponding data generated in other urban locations around the world. Temporal variation in concentrations of elements, including day-time vs night-time and seasonal variations, will be discussed. Source apportionment will be performed to identify sources contributing to measured concentrations of elements. Receptor modeling will be used as statistical tool in source apportionment exercise.
Title: A STUDY ON SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN URBAN AND SUBURBAN AREAS OF ANKARA
Presenter: Ezgi Sert
Approximately 300 organic compounds are released into the air as a result of natural and human-induced activities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the important subset of these organic compounds. VOCs have become a major pollutants due to their carcinogenic effects and important roles in tropospheric ozone formation. Therefore, determination of concentrations and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds, especially where people live in, have great importance. In this study, two sampling stations were established in Ankara, one located in Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, one located in METU Campus and in these stations with canister sampling, between June 2014 and September 2015, VOCs samples were collected y 24-hour period. By using GC-FID technique, concentrations of the fifty- five organic compounds will be determined in gathered 500 VOC samples so far. Following objectives were aimed in this study; (1) to determine the VOCs levels in Ankara between 2014 - 2015 and to demonstrate how VOC concentrations had changed over the years, (2) to show the sources of VOCs and the contribution of these sources to the concentrations that are measured at the sampling stations, (3) to identify whether VOCs or NO2s are significant for the O3 production in Ankara and (4) to calculate the cancer related and non-cancer related health risks due to VOCs.
CONTAMINATED SITE INVESTIGATION ? WHY / WHEN / HOW ?
Presenter: Michael Pupeza
Investigation and remediation of contaminated sites is a complex effort designed to lead to the clean-up or mitigation of the effects caused by an environmental pollution accident. Given the budgetary and time constraints of such work, and the requirements set by environmental regulation work has to be planned thoughtfully. The presentation we will make will lead the audience through the basic principles of contamination, its sources and types, the definition, preparation, application and final exemplification of the site conceptual model ? the key to understanding a site and planning necessary, effective and efficient interventions. A real case study will be presented where the notions enumerated before will be discussed in a logical sequence. The importance of a flexible scientific and technical approach will be emphasized; and by doing so, giving the audience by the way of examples suggestions on how to approach the resolving of problems in their present and future professional life.
Temiz Teknolojilerde Girişimcilik, Tehditler ve Yaratacağı Fırsatlar
Presenter: Osman Malik ATANUR
015 yılının son günlerinde gerçekleşen ve 12 Aralık?ta sonuç bildirisi duyurulan COP21 Paris İklim Zirvesinde 186 ülke karbon salınımını düzenleyen programlarını açıkladı. Toplantı sonunda, küresel ısınmanın 2°C altında kalması hedefinde anlaşmaya varıldı. Bu tarihi karar, temiz teknolojilere dayanan sürdürülebilir büyümenin önemini küresel ölçekte artıracaktır. Kararın alınmasında etkili olan iklimsel değişiklikler ile artması beklenen açlık ve çatışma kaynaklı kitlesel göç hareketleri, küresel ölçekte ekonomik krizleri tetikleme potansiyeli taşıyor.
Küresel ilginin giderek arttığı temiz teknoloji alanlarında Global Cleantech Innovation Programme (GCIP) Türkiye Programı ulusal ve uluslararası yarışmalarla farkındalığı artırma ve Enerji Verimliliği, Yenilenebilir Enerji, Atıktan Enerji Üretimi ve Su Verimliliği konularında yenilik kapasitesi yüksek firmalar oluşturma ve destekleme hedefleriyle 2014 yılında başlatıldı
Gelecek Vaat Eden Temiz Teknoloji İş Fikirlerini arıyor, kaynak sağlıyor ve teşvik ediyoruz" sloganı ile Türkiye'nin de aralarında bulunduğu 7 ülkede yürütülmekte olan (GCIP)?de, başta Eğitim ve Mentorluk destekleri olmak üzere, Tanıtım ve Sermayeye Ulaşım kilit aktiviteleri ile ülkemizdeki temiz teknoloji girişimcileri destekleniyor. GCIP'in tamamlanan 2014 ve 2015 yıllarında karşılaşılan zorluklar ve bu zorlukların yarattığı/yaratacağı imkanlar üzerinde durulacak, bilgi ve tecrübe paylaşımı yapılacaktır.
ADIOLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF ROUTINE RELEASES FROM A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT (AKKKUYU)
Presenter: Meltem Nihan AKSOY
In this study, radiological impacts of atmospheric releases due to routine (normal) operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP) will be investigated. The work will consist of several individual steps. In the first step, radionuclide releases during routine operation of the proposed Akkuyu NPP, which will be located on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey will be calculated. In the second step, calculated radionuclide emissions will be dispersed in the atmosphere for one year with typical annual meteorology and maximum, average and minimum ground level activities (in location and time) will be calculated. In the third step doses to which people living in those locations will be exposed to will be calculated and health risk associated with those exposures will be estimated. Finally in the fourth step, radionuclide releases from a thermal power plant, which has approximately similar capacity with the Akkuyu NPP will be estimated and health risk associated with radionuclide emissions from thermal power plant will be compared with the risk associated with releases from the NPP.
Towards inclusive and sustainable industrial development
Presenter: Senol Ataman
UNIDO is the specialized agency of the United Nations that promotes industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability.
UNIDO advocates that inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID) is the key driver for the successful integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions, required to fully realize sustainable development for the benefit of our future generations.
UNIDO's mandate is fully recognized in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)-9, which calls to ?Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation?.
Programmes of UNIDO is structured in three thematic priorities, each of which represents different aspects of ISID:
-Creating shared prosperity
-Advancing economic competitiveness
-Safeguarding the environment
UNIDO's Environment Branch aims to improve existing industries? environmental performance and foster new industries delivering environmental goods and services. It is structured around four key areas of intervention: promoting industrial resource efficiency and cleaner production (RECP) and the optimum use of water; eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from processes, products and waste; phasing out ozone-depleting substances (ODS); and developing new services to support industry to address emerging environmental compliance regimes.
Tunnel Fire Safety: History, Safety Issues and Related Research
Presenter: Ahmet Yozgatlıgil
Modern society demand for efficient transportation systems has highlighted the importance of tunnels as a mean of alleviating traffic congestion as well as providing faster transit of goods. However, as history has shown, tunnel fires have always posed a threat to the lives of the car and train passengers. Fire incidents at the underground railway tunnel in Azerbaijan (1995), the Mont-Blanc tunnel between France and Italy (1999), the Tauern tunnel in Austria (1999), the Kaprun tunnel in Switzerland (2000), the Channel Tunnel between UK and France (1996, 2006, 2008, 2012) are among the most catastrophic examples with massive fatalities. This ongoing concern, coupled with the overwhelmingly high investment cost of tunnel construction, has drawn extensive research attention to the safety issues associated with the design of tunnels as well as risk perception and maintenance strategies. A better understanding of tunnel fire dynamics and related phenomena will provide much needed information about the safety measures that need to be taken. In this talk the recent tunnel fire incidents will be presented. A review of tunnel fire safety related research will also be provided.
Fly ash from atom-scale physics to macro-scale performance
Presenter: Dr. Çağla Meral
Meeting the ever increasing concrete demand in a sustainable way is one of the critical challenges of cement and concrete industry. There are two major green concepts commonly implemented by the industry: (1) Building more efficient cement factories, or updating the existing ones, (2) providing concrete mixes with increased fractions of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Updating a cement factory might be costly and time consuming. On the other hand, using SCMs provides an easy and sustainable solution yielding concretes with high workability, satisfactory ultimate strength, and improved long-term durability. Coal fly ash ? the main by-product from the combustion of pulverized coal in thermal power plants - is one of the most popular SCMs due to its wide range availability and low cost. The precise understanding of the glassy phase of this highly amorphous aluminosilicate waste at atomic scale can permit the optimization of the materials and allow the incorporation of higher amounts of waste. However, the fundamental questions and ambiguities on understanding of the atomic-scale structure of this phase remain. This presentation starts with introducing coal fly ash at atomic-scale; then presents its performance as a SCM in concrete through engineering and life-cycle point of views.
Seminar on Academic Writing
Presenter: Deniz Saydam ve Cahide Çavuşoğlu
SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS
Presenter: Ferda Ulutaş
Sustainable production is defined as the creation of goods and services using processes and systems that are non-polluting, conserving energy and natural resources, economically viable, safe and healthful for workers, communities and consumers. If production is sustainable, then the environment, employees, communities, and organizations ?all benefit. Industrial symbiosis is one of the key concepts of sustainable production. It represents that two or more enterprises form long-term partnerships to increase resource efficiency, environmental performance and competitiveness. The basic and most common application of industrial symbiosis is the exchange or sharing of by-products or wastes among enterprises and their use as a raw material or resource. There are many examples showing that industrial symbiosis practices provide economic and social benefits as well as environmental benefits such as landfill diversion, water saving, raw material substitution, energy saving, carbon reduction. In the presentation, concept of industrial symbiosis and its benefits will be introduced, supported by several examples from the world. In addition, information about the industrial symbiosis projects and programs implemented by Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV) will be provided.
Environment Operational Programme in Turkey
Presenter: Çiğdem Çoygun Handy
Blue Flag Programme in Turkey
Presenter: Almıla KINDAN CEBBARİ
Last year Turkey became second in the world (among 49 countries) with having 436 Blue Flag beaches awarded. Blue Flag is an internationally recognized ecolabel and the programme is run by an independent non-governmental organization Foundation for Environmental Education based in Copenhagen-Denmark. The authorized responsible body implementing the programme in Turkey is Foundation for Environmental Education in Turkey (Türkiye Çevre Eğitim Vakfı). The content of Blue Flag comprises bathing water quality, environmental management, environmental education, safety and services.
Solar-Driven Photolysis as an Alternative for Leachate Treatment
Presenter: Derya Dursun Balcı, PhD.,
The treatment of the recalcitrant Leachate Organic Matter (LOM) can be problematic due to its persistence in the envirenment longer periods of time. Previous studies showed that the removal of LOM would require advanced treatment methods such as reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and ozonation that are known to be energy intensive and expensive. Generally, a combination of physical, chemical and biological processes is used in landfill leachate treatment. Still, there is urgent need to explore the technologies that can facilitate treatment of leachate at lower costs.With this motivation, photolysis (using sunlight as the source of irradiation) has attracted significant attention for leachate treatment due to its lower costs and ease of operation. Previous researchers has provide evidence that natural sun-light driven photolysis process enables the removal of some parts of organic matter and/or alter these materials into more stable forms.This presentation will provide preliminary results from a study that explores of the removal of most challenging constituent of leachate, LOM via photolysis. The main objective is to examine degradation of organic compounds in landfill leachate during photolysis process. In the content of this research, mature leachate were sampled from a conventional municipal solid waste landfill site located in Central Florida. For photolysis experiments, samples were placed in 2 L Tedlar sampling bags placed under natural sunlight for 90 days and in the meantime irradiation and climate data were also collected . Our preliminary results indicated that UV-Vis transmittance of the samples were decreased by time significantly especially for the first 45 days (6 weeks). The average solar radiance was around 850 W/m2 and the average temperature was approximately 29°C. Addition of TiO2 in photolysis proses also provided promising results.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENT
Presenter: Naz ÖZGÜÇ
Information on United Nations Development Programme
Turkey's nature and natural resources
Turkey's problems regarding the environment
Importance of nature conservation and sustainable development
Explanation of climate change and it's impact on the world and Turkey
Title:LABORATUVAR GÜVENLİĞİ VE ÇALIŞMA KURALLARI
Presenter: Melek ÖZDEMİR
ODTÜ Çevre Mühendisliği Bölümü Laboratuvar Güvenliği ve Çalışma Kuralları konulu sunum laboratuvar genel işleyiş kuralları, laboratuvarda çalışılırken kişisel olarak alınması gereken önlemler, kimyasal maddeler ile, cam malzemeler ile ve cihazlar ile çalışılırken dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlar hakkında genel bilgileri kapsamaktadır.
Title:Experiences of a METU ENVE Alumni in the USA
Presenter: Sarp Sekeroglu
After graduating from METU in 2001, Mr. Sekeroglu has attended San Diego State University for his Master's Degree. Upon completion of his studies, Mr. Sekeroglu has worked in the private sector for 10 years and has recently started his own consulting business a year ago. Mr. Sekeroglu will be presenting his experiences during graduate school, corporate life and entrepreneurial adventures. Experiences in Graduate School will include details about research, professional networking and job search. Experiences in Corporate Life will include details about corporate structures in the USA, advantages and disadvantages of being a METU Alumni, value of professional networking for corporate life and the differences between Turkish and American corporate life and professionalism. Entrepreneurial experiences will include details about starting a business in the USA, challenges of being a one-man-company and business development on a small scale.
Title: PROCESS OPTIMIZATION ON WATER RECOVERY FROM REACTIVE DYEING EFFLUENTS
Presenter: Burcu Koçer
Reactive dyeing process, a widely used dyeing method in the textile industry, results in wastewater generation comprising high levels of COD, color and suspended solids with a very high salt content. Due to the salinity problem associated with high salt concentration of effluents, the color problem and the huge amount of wastewater due to the excess use of water during the process, wastewater coming from reactive dyeing is needed to be well managed. The aim of this study is the investigation of the optimal process of clean water recovery from reactive dyeing wastewater with membrane filtration systems. First of all, by using results of trials on different MF(microfiltration) membranes, the most suitable membrane in terms of water treatment efficiency and permeate flux will be selected. Then, it will be examined that whether the application of UF(ultrafiltration) before NF(nanofiltration) or only the direct application of NF is more suitable to determine the most appropriate process configuration. Effects of different cross flow rates and trans-membrane pressures on the determined optimal process will be investigated. Also, economic feasibility studies along with the process optimization will be carried out.
Title: TREATMENT OF REACTIVE DYEING WASTEWATER AND RECOVERY OF BRACKISH WATER BY APPLYING ULTRAFILTRATION
Presenter: Mert Erkanlı
One of the most commonly used dyeing process in textile industry is reactive dyeing. Reactive dyeing of textiles requires the usage of huge amounts of salt in addition to dyestuff and auxiliaries. Treatment of reactive dyeing wastewater by conventional methods can not provide desired color and conductivity removal. In this study, reactive dyeing wastewater treatment with membrane filtration will be emphasized. The aim is to treat the wastewater with ultrafiltration in a way that salt is retained without
applying nanofiltration and to investigate the usability of the treated brackish water in the same process. By using cross-flow Osmonics SEPA, different UF membranes such as PES,hydrophilic PES, cellulose, PVDF,PAN-PEO will be compared in terms of their performance, effect of operation variables and fouling characteristics.
Title: Stormwater Management within the Context of Sustainable Green Campuses: A Case Study on METU Campus
Presenter: Gizem Gül Topal
Sustainability is a growing conception in different subjects; economy, social life and also most importantly in environmental issues. In environmental manner waste, energy, transportation, food and water are some headlines that can be examined in sustainability concept. Stormwater management takes an important part in overall water management studies since it is a natural source and key point of hydrological cycle. Therefore, impervious areas cause stormwater not to percolate underground and that causes some drastic events; floods, combined sewer overflows, extreme runoffs on the surface etc. To avoid such events, there are some engineered systems established to reduce runoff rates on the spot while mimicking the natural conditions. In this thesis, implementation potentials of different management strategies and their applicability in METU campus will be investigated. Overall purpose of this study is to understand the impact of Best Management Practices (BMPs) and Low Impact Development (LIDs) on urban runoff reduction. All data gathered will be analyzed with the help of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to determine watersheds exist in campus area. EPA SWMM 5.0 software will be used for evaluation of rainfall data and understand the current situation of campus in terms of stormwater collection and then some scenarios about LID locations and types will be run to see the impact on runoff reduction in campus.
Title: BIODEGRADATION OF THE FLUORINATED NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PHARMACEUTICAL FLURBIPROFEN BY ENVIRONMENTAL BACTERIAL ISOLATES
Presenter: Kadir Yanaç
Pharmaceutical compounds have attracted the attention of the scientific community partially because their environmental fates and effects are largely unknown. Flurbiprofen,the most the third most popular pharmaceutical overall in Turkey,is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory most commonly sold under the brand-name Majezik.Considering this popularity, that approximately 22% of consumed flurbiprofen excreted as the parent compound, and that the dose is high (100-200mg), It has the potential to reach Turkish sewage treatment systems and surface waters in significant concentrations. The biodegradation of flurbiprofen has not been studied to any degree. The environmental and microbiological fates of fluoro-aromatics are not well understood. Aerobic sewage sludge from Ankara municipal treatment plant will be enriched for flurbiprofen degraders. Disappearance of the parent compound and any metabolic intermediates that accumulate in the spiked sludge will be characterized by chromatographic methods. In order to identify the unique strains that result from the enrichment, the 16S rRNA gene sequences will be amplified and subjected to restriction fragment analysis and DNA sequencing. The potential accumulation of catecholic metabolites will be analyzed by mixture of culture samples with ferric chloride with the aid of metabolic poisons. Characterization of the bacterial toxicity of any metabolic byproducts will be determined by the standard Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition assay. The aim of the study is to contribute to the understanding of the biodegradation of flurbiprofen by environmental bacteria. Additionally, there will be the possibility to gain understanding of the biological activities of fluorinated aromatics and their tendencies to result in toxic byproducts.
Title: Evaluation of the Best Management Practices to Control Agricultural Diffuse Pollution in Lake Mogan Watershed with SWAT Model
Presenter: Zeynep Özcan
Lake Mogan which is located in Gölbaşı County, 20 km south of Ankara, Turkey is one of the most important wetlands of Turkey and it was declared as Special Environmental Protection Region in 1990. Mogan-Eymir lakes and wetlands nominated for Ramsar are important bird area hosting 227 different bird species. Total area of Lake Mogan watershed is 970 km2 and dry farming is practiced in 65% of the basin. Therefore, one of the most important pressures threatening the water quality of Lake Mogan is the intense agricultural practices. In addition, the natural values possessed by the lake is under urban and industrial threat due to its proximity to metropolis Ankara. In the context of this thesis, diffuse pollution loads resulting from the agricultural areas will be determined and the effects of implementation of different agricultural best management practices will be evaluated by using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). With calibrated SWAT model different best management practices like terracing, reduced/no tillage, crop rotation and different fertilization amounts will be assessed in terms of reduction in total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS).
Title: Current perspectives on Salmonella quantification in environmental media: The trade-off of accuracy and ease
Presenter: Dr. Robert Murdoch
Salmonella is estimated to cause 95 million cases of disease worldwide annually, a situation with a considerable effect on overall public health and national economies. While Salmonella is regarded as one of the more dangerous human pathogens transmissible by human waste streams, it has become clear that standard quantification methods are not sufficient for accurate quantification. Salmonella have been demonstrated to commonly exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in biosolids following sludge treatment processes. While VNBC organisms may not grow when subjected to standard culture-based quantification methods, they remain able to begin growth at a later time when subjected to certain conditions. This phenomenon is likely leading to consistent under-estimation of viable Salmonella concentrations. A recently developed and verified technique for distinguishing the genetic material in intact, viable cells from genetic material outside of cells or contained in mortally damaged cells has been developed and demonstrated. This technique, which is based on the binding of the chemical propidium monoazide (PMA) to extracellular DNA only, potentially offers the most rapid and reliable method for distinguishing viable and non-viable cells to date, thus potentially solving the final challenge that faces molecular Salmonella quantification. However, while this qPCR-based approach is expected to be accurate and rapid, it remains quite expensive. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a relatively new technique in molecular biology that offers a rapid, inexpensive, inhibition-resistant, and highly-specific alternative to classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Due to these advantages, LAMP is increasingly being explored as a superior method for the detection and quantification of specific pathogens in food and water supplies.
Title: EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF A SOLVENT RECYCLING UNIT IN A FACTORY PRODUCING FIBRE BY USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
Presenter: Gizem Hakyemez
In this study, Life Cycle Assessment Technique will be used for analyzing all possible environmental effects of The Solvent Recycling Unit of a fiber producing factory considering the Best Available Techniques specified in IPPC Directive 96/61/EC BREF report. Mass and energy balances will be constructed, waste production rates will be evaluated based on the data gathered through site investigations, sampling and analysis (if required) in an attempt to achieve process modifications that would yield waste solvent minimization, waste stabilization, emission reduction, energy loss prevention and odour control. The focus will be on meeting the standards of the relevant regulations to reach a sustainable development in terms of environmental, economical and technical aspects.
Title: The role of a health & safety expert in a workplace
Presenter: Koray Daver
Title: Monitoring and modeling of carbon, nitrogen and water cycles for peatlands of Yeniçağa lake (Bolu) using flux tower and remote sensing
Presenter: Prof. Dr. Fatih Evrendilek
Historical LULC change detection of Yeniçağa peatlands revealed that C stock declined from 2.43 + 0.15 million ton (Mt) in 1944 to 0.65 + 0.04 Mt in 2009 mostly due to agricultural drainage and afforestation. Drainage-induced C emission rate for Yeniçağa peatlands is estimated to vary between 12.5 and 32.5 t C ha-1 year-1. When the extrapolation of this C emission rate to the entire peatland area of 240 km2 across Turkey was made, CO2 emissions in 2009 are found to be 0.30 to 0.78 Mt, which is equivalent to 0.01 to 0.02% of LULC-induced CO2 emissions of 3230 Mt at the global scale. According to preliminary results between July 12 and October 17 of 2010, hourly NEE varied between −1.26 and 1.06 mg CO2 m−2 s−1, with a mean estimate of 0.11 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Nighttime ecosystem respiration was, on average, measured at a rate of 0.23 ± 0.09 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. The best two M(N)LR models estimated daytime ecosystem respiration as 0.64 ± 0.31 and 0.24 ± 0.05 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Total ecosystem respiration (night plus day) ranged from 0.47 to 0.87 mg CO2 m−2 s−1, and GPP estimates were determined as −0.35 ± 0.18 and −0.74 ± 0.43 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Eddy covariance (EC) time series data from flux towers (EC) contain noise due to both stochastic atmospheric turbulences and deterministic processes, and currently, no standard established protocol exists for denoising such data. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) for Yeniçağa peatlands was directly measured for 590 days using EC method. Both the response variables of daytime and nighttime NEE (NEEd and Reco-n) and the explanatory variables of latent heat (LE), relative humidity (RH) and atmospheric CO2 and H2O concentrations (AtmCO2 and AtmH2O) were subjected to DWT denoising with coiflet (coif10-6). Denoised NEE fluxes and their temporal components were modeled as a function of LE, RH, AtmCO2, AtmH2O, air temperature (Ta), day of year (DOY) and local hour variables, using multiple linear regression (MLR), polynomial regression (PR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models. Full daytime dynamic ANN models performed best. The use of this dynamic ANN models proved successful in estimating non-linear behaviors of daytime and nighttime radiation components. The use of EC sensors and DWT-augmented ANN and M(N)LR models was determined to be one of the most effective ways to quantify both turbulent CO2 exchanges among soil, vegetation and atmosphere and ecosystem sink and source behaviors.
Title: Assessment of Air Quality in Bolu between 2013 and 2014
Presenter: Fatma Öztürk
Bolu is one of the cities suffering from frequent air pollution episodes, particularly in the winter season, due to its peculiar geography and poor control of emissions releasing from domestic heating and motor vehicles. The main industrial sector in the city is based on the broiler houses, from which significant contribution to the air pollution is not expected. However, TEM and D100 highways passing through the city are thought to be the main sources affecting the air quality and these line sources cannot be controlled. Though one SO2 and one PM10 analyzers are operated in the city by Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, the data produced cannot completely explore the air quality profile. The statistical estimations performed considering the mixing height of the atmosphere were able to show that the assimilative capacity of the city was very bad in 79 %, bad in 10 %, good in 6 % and very good in 5 % of time. Very comprehensive field study was performed in Bolu between 2013 and 2014 to explore the sources affecting the deteriorated air quality of the city. To end this, PM samples were collected in Bolu at two different stations (urban and semi-urban) between 2013 and 2014. Samples collected at the urban site were analyzed in terms of ions and EC/OC while those collected at the semi-urban site were analyzed in terms of metals, ions, EC/OC, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes by a combination of different analytical techniques. Gaseous phase pollutants such as O3, NOx and SO2 were also monitored along with the meteorology with high time resolution. In addition to these two fixed sites, spatial distribution of metals across the Bolu plain was also investigated by means of bio-monitoring. Generated data revealed that urban site is much more influenced by the anthropogenic emissions compared to semi-urban site. Combustion is the main source of pollution at the urban site during night times and heating season. More results about this study will be presented in this seminar.
Title:Factors affecting VOC levels in the ENVE building
Presenter: Prof. Dr. Gürdal Tuncel
We measured concentrations of VOCs, SO2, NO2 and O3 in ENVE and MM buildings in 2010 and 2011. Passive samplers were located in some of the offices, labs, classes, hallways and retained there for approximatley one week. Measaurements in the MM building were performed to understand vertical variation in concentrations of VOCs and factors affecting such variaiton. Presentation will consist of two parts. The first part will include information on sampling in general and passive sampling in particular and the second part results of measurements in ENVE and MM buildings will be discussed.
Title: Kum ve Toz Fırtınaları ve Türkiye’ye Etkileri
Presenter: Cihan Dündar
Toz taşınımı dünya ekosistemi için büyük önem taşımaktadır. Çöllerden kalkan tozlar, atmosferin üst tabakalarına yükselerek uzun mesafeler kat etmektedir. Göreceli olarak büyük olan toz parçacıkları, kaynak alanlarının yakınlarında çökerken, 10 µm’den daha küçük olanlar ise binlerce kilometre yol kat edebilmektedir.
Türkiye, coğrafi konumu itibariyle çöl bölgelerine olan yakınlığı ve batı rüzgârları kuşağında yer alması sebebiyle son yıllarda bol miktarda çöl tozu taşınımına uğramaktadır. Bu nedenle, özellikle Afrika ve Orta Doğu başta olmak üzere, Türkiye dışından ve içinden olacak toz taşınımlarının izlenmesi ve tahmin edilmesi büyük önem taşımaktadır.
Title: ODTÜ Çevre Mühendisliği Bölümü Laboratuvar Güvenliği ve Çalışma Kuralları
Presenter: Dr. Melek Özdemir
ODTÜ Çevre Mühendisliği Bölümü Laboratuvar Güvenliği ve Çalışma Kuralları” konulu sunum laboratuvar genel işleyiş kuralları, laboratuvarda çalışılırken kişisel olarak alınması gereken önlemler, kimyasal maddeler ile, cam malzemeler ile ve cihazlar ile çalışılırken dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlar hakkında genel bilgileri kapsamaktadır.