TALANTA 99(2012)720–729

Title: Improvement of uptake rate equations depending on meteorological conditions for 25 volatile organic compounds
Authors: Mihriban Yılmaz Civan, Sema Yurdakul , Gürdal Tuncel
Abstract:Stainless steel passive (diffusive) sampling tubes manufactured by Gradko International Ltd. (UK) were filled with Chromosorb 106 (Supelco) and evaluated to determine the uptake rates of 31 VOCs over six months under different meteorological conditions in a suburban area of Ankara, Turkey. The URs have been calculated, and dependence on such meteorological parameters as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed has been established for the 31 VOCs. The URs of the 31 VOCs measured in this study showed a statistically significant decreasing trend with rising temperature; and weaker, but again statistically significant, increasing trends with increasing relative humidity and wind speed. This study has demonstrated that the URs of VOCs are affected by meteorological parameters, and this dependence should be taken into account when attempting to generate reliable data through passive sampling. A multiple linear regression equation in which temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were used as independent variables was generated for 25 of the 31 tested VOCs.and wind speed were used as independent variables was generated for 25 of the 31 tested VOCs.

ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH 118 (2012) 153–169

Title: Metallic composition and source apportionment of fine and coarse particlesusing positive matrix factorization in the southern Black Sea atmosphere
Authors: Lokman Hakan Tecer, Gürdal Tuncel, Ferhat Karaca, Omar Alagha, Pınar Süren, Abdullah Zararsız, Rıdvan Kırmaz
Abstract:In this study, coarse- (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) fraction aerosol samples were collected using a dichotomous sampler, and their metallic composition (Mg, Al, Ti, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence. The average crustal enrichment factor (EFc) values of Pb, Cu, SO42−, and Zn are greater than 10 for both coarse- and fine-fractionaerosols, which indicates that anthropogenic sources account for the concentrations of these four elements in both the fractions. In this study, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used for the source apportionment of PM2.5 mass in the Zonguldak atmosphere. A total of six factors were identified, which can be interpreted as either emission sources or physically meaningful factors. The goodness of the six-factor solution for the PMF model was tested by comparing the measured and the modeled PM2.5 masses. An excellent agreement was found between the measured and the modeled fine masses, which indicates that the six-factor-PMF solution adopted in this study accurately accounts for the observed PM2.5 mass in the city of Zonguldak, the city is located at the middle of the Black Sea coasts of Turkey.

ENVIRON MONIT ASSESS (2012) 184:5215–5224

Title: Simultaneous determination of selected endocrine disrupter compounds in wastewater samples in ultra trace levels using HPLC-ES-MS/MS
Authors: Okan Tarık Komesli & Sezgin Bakırdere & Ceren Bayören & Celal Ferdi Gökçay
Abstract:Abstract An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of six selected endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs: diltiazem, progesterone,benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), estrone, carbamazepine (Cbz), acetaminophen) was developed by liquidchromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS/MS). All of the parameters for HPLC and ES-MS/MS systems including mobile phase composition, flow rate, and sample injection volume were optimized to obtain not only the best separation of species interested but also low detection limits. Reverse phase chromatography coupled to ES-MS/MS was used for the separation and detection of EDCs. Formic acid (0.10% ) and 5.0 mM ammonium formate were selected as mobile phase composition in gradient elution. Detection limits for diltiazem, progesterone, BBP, estrone, Cbz, and acetaminophen were found to be 0.13, 0.12, 0.04, 0.13, 0.12, and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. Influent and effluents from three different wastewater treatment plants located in Ankara, i.e., rotating flat-sheet membrane unit, pilot type flat-sheet membrane unit located at METU Campus and samples from Ankara central wastewater treatment plant were analyzed for their EDCs contents under the optimum conditions.


Title: Contribution of VOCs to Ozone Formation in Bursa Atmosphere
Authors: Mihriban Yılmaz Civan1, Öznur Oğuz Kuntasal, Gürdal Tuncel
Abstract:Weekly passive sampling campaigns were carried out over two sample periods to measure SO2, NO2,O3 in Bursa, one of the most heavily industrialized cities in Turkey. The measurements were conducted at 40 points in October 2005 and 49 points in April 2006. Ozone formation potential related to VOCs measured in same sampling points is calculated by Maximum Incremental Reeactivity (MIR) technique. M&p xylene is the most dominant contributor to ozone formation among all sectors. Toluene is the second largest contributor. On average, these two compounds account for 70% and 75% of the total for October 2005 and April 2006 sampling campaigns, respectively. According to factor analysis results conducted in the previous study, these two compounds came mainly from the use of solvents and gasoline evaporation.


Title: Valuation of environmental improvements in a specially protected marine area:A choice experiment approach in Göcek Bay, Turkey
Authors: Özge Can, Emre Alp
Abstract:Although the Göcek Bay area was declared as a specially protected area by General Directorate of Natural Assets Protection, the region is threatened because of pollution resulting from increased boat tourism and lackof efficient policies. Extensive measures are being planned in order to protect the region. Coastal management requires the use of technical, social political and economic tools to create a comprehensive management strategy. For environmental investments, it is necessary that benefits and the costs of environmental improvements should be identified in monetary terms in order to determine the feasibility of the investments. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of the management alternatives to improve environmental quality in Göcek Bay to aid decision makers. In this study, the environmental benefits that can be obtained with improved water quality and restored marine ecosystem were calculated using the Choice Experiment Method, a non-market valuation technique. Data were analyzed using Multinomial Logit Model and the results showed that, local residents and tourists are willing to pay 18 TL/month and 16.6 TL/tour, respectively for improvements in water quality. For improvements in marine life, local residents are willing to pay 14.8 TL/month and tourists are willing to pay 11.2 TL/tour. With this study, it has been seen that the results obtained will pave the way for new policies and measures against the deterioration of the marine environment of Göcek Bay.

ANALYST, 2012, 137, 884–889

Title: Determination of selected natural hormones and endocrine disrupting compounds in domestic wastewater treatment plants by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction
Authors: Melis Muz, M. Selcen Sönmez, Okan Tarık Komesli, Sezgin Bakırdere and Celal Ferdi Gökçay
Abstract:A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of two natural hormones (progesterone and estrone) and two selected endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs) (diltiazem and carbamazepine (Cbz)) was developed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) after pre-concentration with solid phase extraction (SPE). Influent and effluent samples taken from five different wastewater treatment plants throughout Turkey namely Hurma/ Antalya, Lara/Antalya, Kemer-1 and Kemer-2 and METU/Ankara were analyzed for their EDCs contents under the optimum conditions. All of the parameters in the pre-concentration step were optimized and the best recoveries for all compounds of interest were achieved at pH 7 (about 100%). Progesterone was not detected in any of the treatment plants while diltiazem was found in all samples with the exception of Lara effluent.

WASTE MANAGEMENT 32 (2012) 359–371

Title: Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey
Authors: Saniye Keser, Sebnem Duzgun, Aysegul Aksoy
Abstract:In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global scale, the MSW generation rates in Turkey are significantly related to unemployment rate and asphaltpaved roads ratio. Yet, significances of these variables may diminish at local scale for some provinces. At local scale, different factors may be important in affecting MSW generation rates.


Title: Zaman Bağlı Sorpsiyon Sitelerin Optimum Pompaj ve Arıtım Tasarımı Üzerindeki Etkileri
Authors: Gamze Güngör Demirci ve Aysegul Aksoy
Abstract:Kirlenmiş sahalarda kirleticilerin toprağa tutunmuş halde bulunabilmesi ve suya çözünmenin yavaş olması, pompaj ve arıtım yöntemiyle temizleme tasarımını ve maliyetlerini etkileyebilir. Bu çalışmada, 1-f faktörünün optimum temizleme tasarımı ve maliyeti üzerindeki etkileri incelenmiştir. f, zamana bağlı sorpsiyonu tanımlamak için sıklıkla kullanılan iki-siteli sorpsiyon modelinde yer alır ve 1-f zamana bağlı sorpsiyon sitelerinin oranını gösterir. Çalışmada benzetim-eniyileme yöntemi kullanılarak, 5 farklı f değeri (0,00, 0,25, 0,50, 0,75, ve 1,00) için farklı hidrolik iletkenlik (K) heterojenliğine sahip hipotetik bir akiferin temizlenmesi için optimum tasarımlar elde edilmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen bulgular, küçük f değerlerinin temizleme için gerekli kuyu sayılarını ve/veya toplam pompaj miktarlarını arttırdığını göstermiştir. Buna paralel olarak toplam temizleme maliyetleri f değerleri düştükçe önemli ölçüde artmıştır. Bulgular, pompaj ve arıtım sistemi tasarımında yavaş sorpsiyonun doğru bir şekilde tanımlanmasının ve doğru f değerinin kullanılmasının gerekliliğini göstermiştir. Bu, temizleme sistemi tasarımını ve maliyet tahminlerini doğru yapabilmek için çok önemlidir.


Title: Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) Evaluation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Sources in Sediments of Kızılırmak River, Turkey, Near a Scrap Yard
Authors: Kadir Gedik ve İpek İmamoğlu
Abstract:This study presents a preliminary investigation for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on surface sediments in a reach of Kızılırmak River near a scrap yard in Kırıkkale, Turkey. PCB concentrations of up to 19.5 ng/g−1 41 were observed in sediments downstream of the yard, where profiles showed predominantly the presence of penta- and hexa-chlorobiphenyls. Specifically, #138, 149, 153, 180 were the most abundant congeners in downstream samples. In contrast, no PCBs were observable in sediments upstream of the scrap yard. The contributing PCB sources to the sediments were predicted by a chemical mass balance (CMB)-based receptor model; Aroclor 1260 was identified as the major source for these sediments. Considering that Aroclor 1260 was extensively used in old transformers and capacitors, occurrence of this PCB signature point to the scrap yard as a potential source. Release of PCBs over time as indicated by the significant concentrations observed even in surface samples emphasizes the importance of the need for better environmental management in the region.

DESALINATION 299 (2012) 16–21

Title: Algal alginate: A potential coagulant for drinking water treatment
Authors: H. Aylin Devrimci, A. Mete Yuksel, F. Dilek Sanin
Abstract:Due to its gelling abilities, calcium alginate has been investigated in this work as a possible coagulant to be used in turbid water treatment. Sodium salts of commercially available alginic acid with low and high viscosities were used in the study. A standard jar test was conducted in 500 mL of synthetic turbid water samples with different initial turbidities of 150, 80 and 10 NTU. These samples were treated using different doses of calcium (varying between 30 and 200 mg/L) and alginate (varying between 0.001 and 10 mg/L). Results of the study indicated that at especially high turbidity values (150 NTU and 80 NTU) calcium alginate proved to be a very effective coagulant causing turbidity removals generally over 98%. In these samples turbidity values as low as 1 NTU were achieved even at very low doses of alginate (0.02 mg/L). The effectiveness of calcium alginate decreased for the sample with lowest initial turbidity (10 NTU). The use of a high viscosity alginate helped to improve the performance of the process at 10 NTU. In addition, when the mixing regime was modified to increase the rapid mixing period and speed, low final turbidity values close to 1 NTU were achieved.


Title: An investigation of agitation speed as a factor affecting the quantity and monomer distribution of alginate from Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC© 9046
Authors: Ç. Kıvılcımdan Moral and F.D. Sanin
Abstract:Alginate is a copolymer of β-D-mannuronic and α-L-guluronic acids. Distribution of these monomers in the alginate structure is one of the important characteristics that affect the commercial value of the polymer. In the present work, the effect of agitation speed in the range of 200–700 rpm on alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC© 9046 was investigated at a dissolved oxygen tension of 5% of air saturation. Experiments were conducted in a fermentor operated in batch mode for 72 h while the production of biomass and alginate, the consumption of substrate and the change in culture broth viscosity and monomer distribution of the polymer were monitored. Results showed that the growth rate of the bacteria increased from 0.165 to 0.239 h-1 by the increase of mixing speed from 200 to 400 rpm. On the other hand, alginate production was found to be the most efficient at 400 rpm with the highest value of 4.51 g/l achieved at the end of fermentation. The viscosity of culture broth showed similar trends to alginate production. Viscosity was recorded as 24.61 cP at 400 rpm while it was only 4.26 cP at 700 rpm. The MM- and GG-block contents were almost equal in most of the culture times at 400 rpm. On the other hand, GG-blocks dominated at both low and high mixing speeds. Knowing that GG-blocks make rigid and protective gels with divalent cations, due to the higher GG-block content, the gel formation potential is higher at 200 rpm as well at 700 rpm, which might originate from the unfavorable environmental conditions that the bacteria were exposed to.


Title: Use of laboratory-grown bacterial alginate in copper removal
Authors: Ç. Kıvılcımdan Moral, Ö. Doğan and F.D. Sanin
Abstract:Industrial production leads to toxic heavy metal pollution in water bodies. Copper is one of the examples that requires removal from effluents before being discharged. It is difficult and sometimes very expensive to remove toxic heavy metals by conventional treatment techniques. This study aims to remove copper by the use of bacterial alginate as a non-conventional technique. Bacterial alginates (natural polymers composed of mannuronic and guluronic acid monomers) were synthesized by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC® 9046 in a laboratory fermentor under controlled environmental conditions. The alginates produced, with a range of different characteristics in terms of monomer distribution and viscosity, were investigated for maximum copper uptake capacities. The average copper uptake capacities of alginates produced were found to be about 1.90 mmol/L Cu2þ/g alginate. Although the GG-block amount of alginates was varied from 12 to 87% and culture broth viscosities were changed within the range of 1.47 and 14 cP, neither the block distribution nor viscosities of alginate samples considerably affected the copper uptake of alginates


Authors: Funda Şentürk, Hasret Şahin and Tuba Hande Erguder
Abstract:Two sets of anaerobic batch reactors were conducted to investigate the effect of pretreatment / type and TS contents (1,3, 6 and 8%) on anaerobic digestion of chicken manure. Increasing the TS contents increased the acclimation periods from 4 to 56 days during digestion of untreated manure. Pretreatment of low TS (1 and 3%) manure was found to be unnecessary. Among pretreatment types, alkali-heat and ultrasonic-alkali-heat treatments were found to improve the biogas production rates for TS contents of 8 and 6%, respectively. Despite the longer acclimation periods and slow rates, digestion of untreated manure (6 and 8%) with anaerobic sludge resulted in same and even higher biogas volumes compared to those of treated manures. Addition of anaerobic sludge was also found to significantly increase the degradation efficiency of both treated and untreated manure types.


Authors: Yusuf Çağatay Erşan, İrem Kocatürk and Tuba Hande Erguder
Abstract:Two sequencing batch reactors seeded with different seed sludge type, namely, membrane bioreactor sludge (R1) and conventional activated sludge (R2), were operated to develop granular sludge and to investigate the effect of suspended seed sludge type on granulation. Granules were developed from both sludge types, but due to the free ammonia inhibition expected high removal efficiencies could not be achieved. During well operating conditions, COD removal efficiencies were 50-85% and 45-77% for R1 and R2, and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were generally between 35-46% and 20-44%, respectively. Although efficiencies were low relative to literature, there were enough implications to discriminate seed sludge types in terms of effectiveness. As a result, granules cultivated from membrane bioreactor sludge were found to be advantageous in terms of size, resistance to toxic effects, stability and recovery.

EEST Part A: Energy Science and Research 29 (2012) 563-576

Title: Evaluation of adsorbents with passive sampling and their analytical methods to determine volatile organic compounds emitted from vehicular exhaust
Authors: Mihriban Yilmaz Civan, Gurdal Tuncel
Abstract:In order to accurate and precise determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from vehicular emissions were developed method including a) adsorption of VOCs on different adsorbents followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) quantification, b) validation of the sampling and analytical method. The adsorption efficiency of Tenax and Chromosorb 106 adsorbents were eveluated for 104 VOCs to select of adequate sorbent for passive sampling. Since most of the anthropogenic VOCs emitted from urban location are associated with the vehicle experiments were performed near road side. The results obtained showed the both the adsorbents almost same efficieny for selected VOCs emitted from vehicular exhaust. The VOC levels measured in this study were comparable with European cities and lower than Asian cities. The differences of VOC levels measured with different cities are due to traffic composition of the cities and their characteristics of fuel.


Title: Temporal variations and sources of Eastern Mediterranean aerosols based on a 9-year observation
Authors: F. Öztürk a, A. Zararsız, V.A. Dutkiewicz, L. Husain, P.K. Hopke, G. Tuncel
Abstract:Concentrations of 48 elements, NO3, SO4, Cl, NH4, and black carbon (BC) were determined in PM10 aerosols collected daily at a rural Eastern Mediterranean (EM) site (Antalya, 30.34 E, 36.47 N) from 1993 to 2001. Temporal variations (daily, seasonal and long term), sources and source regions of EM aerosols were delineated. Concentrations of elements with marine and crustal origin were more episodic as compared to anthropogenic ones. Most of the variables showed well defined seasonal cycles. Concentrations of crustal elements increased in summer while winter concentrations of marine elements were considerably higher than in summer. Trends in concentrations were analyzed using the Kendall test. Essentially, all elements showed decreasing trends. Sen’s slope was applied to find the magnitude of the trends. The annual rate of decrease was found to change from 0.001 to 209 ng m-3. A receptor-based model, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), resolved five factors influencing the chemical composition of EM aerosols as airborne dust, oil combustion, coal combustion, motor vehicle emissions and sea salt. Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis was performed to identify the likely areas influencing the chemical composition of aerosol samples. Local and remote sources were detected for the factors resolved by PMF. PSCF maps including backward trajectories at starting height of 900 hPa have indicated that North Africa is the major source contributing to the concentrations of variables associated with dust factor.

ÇEVRE BİLİM & TEKNOLOJİ, Cilt 3, Sayı 4, 293-304, 2012

Authors: Öznur OĞUZ KUNTASAL, Güray DOĞAN, Deniz KARMAN, Daniel WANG, Gürdal TUNCEL
Abstract:Ankara’da birisi yerleşim birimlerinde, diğeri yol kenarında ve üçüncüsü de şehrin banliyölerinden birisinde olmak üzere üç örnekleme noktasında uçucu organik bileşik (UOB) örnekleri toplanmıştır. Örnekler 2003 yılında Temmuz ve Ekim ayları arasında, 2004 yılında da Ocak ve Mart ayları arasında Tenax TA ve Carbopack üzerine toplanmıştır. Toplanan örneklerde GC-MS sistemi kullanılarak 91 UOB nin konsantrasyonları belirlenmiştir. Örneklemeler gündüz üç defa dörder saatlik birbirini izleyen seanslar halinde, gece ise sekiz saatlik tek seans olarak yapılmıştır. Değişik UOB’lerin birbirlerine olan oranları ve aralarındaki korelasyon ilişkilerinden hareketle, örnekleme noktalarını etkileyen kaynaklar hakkında fi kir edinilmeye çalışılmıştır. Yapılan değerlendirmeler sonucunda, ölçülen BTEX konantrasyonlarını etkileyen en önemli kaynağın kış döneminde trafik emisyonları olduğu görülmüştür. Yaz aylarında ise trafi ğin yanısıra çözücülerin BTEX konsantrasyonları üzerinde etkili olduğu belirlenmiştir. Korelasyon katsayıları analiz edildiğinde ise, trafi k kaynaklı emisyonların yanısıra halojenli solvent kullanılan proseslerden yapılan emisyonların ve biojenik emisyonların, Ankara atmosferindeki UOB konsantrasyonunu arttıran kaynaklar olduğu görülmüştür.